ДЛЯ ЗАКРЕПЛЕНИЯ ЛЕКСИЧЕСКОГО МАТЕРИАЛА УЧЕБНИКА
Intermediate Business English
Для студентов экономического факультета
Институт международного права и экономики имени А. С. Грибоедова
кафедрой иностранных языков
С о с т а в и т е л и : канд. филол. наук, проф. Л.Е. Мазурина,
Тематический практикум для закрепления лексического материала учебника «Market Leader. Intermediate Business English». Часть I: Для студентов экономического факультета / сост. Л.Е. Мазурина, М.В. Ленточникова. – М. : ИМПЭ им. А.С. Грибоедова, 2009. – 70 с.
Практикум для закрепления материала учебника: Сotton D., Falvey D., Kent S. Market Leader. Intermediate Business English. Longmen, 2001, подготовлен на кафедре иностранных языков.
© Мазурина Л.Е., Ленточникова М.В., 2009
Exercise 1. Study the Vocabulary
globalization – глобализация
global companies / business / firms – компании, бизнес, фирмы мирового масштаба
local companies / business / firms – местные компании, бизнес, фирмы
global business coordination – глобальная координация бизнеса
industries – отрасли промышленности
pharmaceuticals – фармацевтическая индустрия
soft drinks – индустрия безалкогольных напитков
brewery – пивная промышленность
catering – общепит
photography – фотоиндустрия
tourism and travelling – сфера туризма и путешествий
recreation and leisure – индустрия развлечений и отдыха
sportive and sports goods – спортивная индустрия и спорттовары
car industry – автомобильная промышленность
oil and gas – нефтегазовая промышленность
telecommunication – телекоммуникации
high technology – высокотехнологичная сфера промышленности
soft-ware – программное обеспечение
hardware – оборудование и аппаратура
hotel and restaurant industry – сфера гостиничного и ресторанного бизнеса
heavy industry – тяжелая промышленность
light industry – легкая промышленность
textile – текстильная промышленность
infrastructure – инфраструктура
profitability – рентабельность
welfare benefits – социальные выплаты
flight of capital – утечка капитала
facilities and services – сфера услуг
movement of large amounts of money from one country to another – перемещение денежных потоков из одной страны в другую
to do harm – причинять вред
Exercise 2. Study the Vocabulary
advantages – преимущества
disadvantages – недостатки
competition – конкуренция
to order the affairs – размещать заказы
to outweigh – перевешивать
to hurt – причинять боль, повреждать
ability – способность
to deal with issues – иметь дело с вопросами
welfare benefits system – система социального обеспечения
taxes – налоги
wages (salaries, fees) – зарплаты
to rule the roost – господствовать
unemployment – безработица
give-and take – консенсус
low-cost – низкозатратный
skilled population – квалифицированное население
flight of capital – утечка капитала
to gather pace – набирать темпы
a survey – обзор
to come up/ to appear – появляться
cost of living – стоимость жизни
on a par with – наравне с
exchange rate – обменный курс
inflation rate – уровень инфляции
currency – валюта
to be hard up – быть на мели
Exercise 3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalization
increases the power of governments
prevents governments from controlling welfare benefits, wages, taxes
prevents governments from controlling decent infrastructure for the people
can lead to the flight of capital from the West
can lead to unemployment in the West
can lead to lower living standards
can lead to cross-cultural problems between China, India and West
Exercise 4. Study vocabulary from exercise C
give-and take – 1) взаимные уступки, компромисс, 2) обмен любезностями
to gather pace –набирать темпы
to rule the roost – командовать, распоряжаться, задавать тон
Exercise 5. Read the following text
The Economist has identified these key contributors to globalization:
Organizations with the resources and expertise to exploit the information on their networks on a worldwide scale that will have a key competitive advantage in many industries. Operating in and producing for not just one country, or even one continent, allows a company to reduce costs and benefit from economies of scale.
Some implications of this for managers have been suggested by points raised in a series in the Financial Times. Even in a company that operates within one country, there is often resistance to ideas from outside, the not invented here syndrome; and with subsidiaries in many countries, this becomes even more of a problem, because it is compounded by cross-cultural issues and potential misunderstandings.
Resistance to the way of doing things elsewhere may be even, stronger if the subsidiary was previously a local company taken over by a multinational, perhaps with loss of jobs and loss of a sense of security among those that remain. Developing international teams of managers in environments like these is a challenge.
A brand like Coca-Cola has been around a long time, and dominates the fizzy drink market in almost every country, outselling local brands. One of the exceptions is Scotland, and their marketing specialists are trying to find out why this is, in an international market that should by now be truly homogenous. Anomalies such as the French preference for top-loading washing machines when the rest of Europe prefers door-loading ones, or the American liking for 4 X 4-type vehicles rather than saloon cars, even in cities, could be related to the smallness of French apartments or the cheapness of American petrol. But there are always cultural 'traditions' that are harder to explain. Why do the Spanish drink so little tea? Why do Germans eat so many bananas? However, traditions can change, or be made to change. Interestingly, breakfast cereal is slowly progressing as a way of starting the day among younger people. A global breakfast cereal culture may be developing. This may seem a trivial example of the globalization of taste, but consumer goods companies, especially, must be aware of issues like these. How do you deal with brand management at a global level? As with the management of global companies, the management of brands internationally is partly a cross-cultural issue. Of course, there is debate about whether the power of international capital and multinationals, and the supposed homogenization of tastes worldwide, are good things or not, and your students will no doubt have their own views.
Exercise 6. Translate into English
1. С моей точки зрения, огромным преимуществом глобализации является то, что растет конкуренция и каждая компания должна стремиться быть впереди всех (быть на переднем крае) в конкурентной борьбе.
2. Но преимущества глобализации перевешиваются ее недостатками.
3. Прежде всего, из-за глобализации местные правительства теряют способность контролировать такие вопросы, как налогообложение, зарплаты, социальные льготы, и обеспечивать достойную инфраструктуру для своего населения.
4. В последнее время многонациональные глобальные компании начали командовать в мировой экономике и диктовать правительствам свою волю в социальной сфере, в налоговой политике и т. д.
5. Еще одним недостатком глобализации является рост безработицы на Западе, поскольку в погоне за увеличением прибыльности глобальные компании ищут страны с малозатратным производством и низкой оплатой труда.
6. В частности, Индия и Китай с их многомиллионным населением уже начали участвовать в глобальной экономике и собираются обеспечить достаточно благоприятную инфраструктуру для глобальных компаний, в том числе на рынке квалифицированного труда.
7. Таким образом, утечка капитала в эти страны, которую мир собирается вскоре увидеть, будет мощной и весьма драматичной.
1. Complete the passage about the US retailer Wal-Mart with appropriate words from the list.
acquisition controlling interest domestic expansion
globalization joint ventures overseas targeted
Wal-Mart, the world's biggest retailer, increased its net earnings by almost 18% during its 4th quarter to 31 January. This was due to a large increase in its international profits. In early trading on the New York Stock Exchange, the shares rose by a dollar.
Wal-Mart is in the early stages of its globalization programme.
In December, it entered Europe with the……………..of a German hypermarket chain, Wertkauf …………. in other parts of the world has contributed to its profits. It has done well in Mexico, having bought a ……………. in the Cifra chain last September.
Wal-Mart has stores in Argentina, Brazil and Puerto Rico, and has ………. or franchises in China and Indonesia.
In its ……………… market, the US, it has opened more superstores, which combine the out-of-town discount stores with a grocery department.
These stores are …………… at customers wanting to shop at one time in one place.
Wal-Mart's international division is planning to add about 60 stores to the 603 it already has open. It will also continue to be on the lookout for suitable acquisitions in …………markets.
In the US, the company plans to add 26m sq. ft of retail floor space by opening new stores and superstores.
2. The phrasal verbs below are used for telephoning. Match them with the correct meanings.
3. Complete these sentences with the phrasal verbs from exercise 2.
Make sure you use the correct tense.
1. If you don't know a number you can always look it up in the directory.
2. ………..a minute, I'll see if she's free.
3. It took a long time but eventually I …………….to him.
4. The switchboard…………… me…………… to the manager's office.
5. This is a terrible line. I can't hear you very well. You'll have to …………………….. .
6. I don't have the figures. I'll have to …………… you tomorrow.
7. I can't talk now. I'll ………………you ………………later.
8. He's on his mobile and the signal is weak. That's why we keep getting ………………………. .
9. When you finish a call you …………….. .
10. It’s been ringing for ages. I wish she'd ………………….the phone.
4. Put the phrasal verbs in exercise 2 in the correct order in a phone call.
5. Write a short paragraph comparing one of your products (or services) or a product (or service) you know well with a product or service of a competitor.
6. Read the following conversation between the Sales Manager and General Manager of a top soft drinks company. They are discussing where to take the top sales representatives for their sales incentive holiday, paid for by the company. There are five mistakes in the use of comparatives. Find them and correct them.
I'm in favor of Tucson, Arizona. There's lots to do. It's an action-packed holiday. Horse-riding will appeal to the men and the women and the golf is great. Also, it'll be more cheap for the company.
I hear what you're saying, Susan, but I think Mauritius is more better for a number of reasons. We're going in March. Mauritius will be hotter and dryer. It's more convenient. Although accommodation in Tucson is good, especially at the top-end of the market, quality accommodation in Mauritius is better. It's a different culture. The food is more varied. The place is just exoticer. Admittedly ' it will be more expensive, but the perceived value and incentive to the sales reps will be more great.
7. Look at the Useful language in the box. Then read the letter and write a suitable reply using the guidelines which follow it.
Beginning the letter
Thank you for your order of (date).
We can quote you a price of 150 Euros per unit CIF / FOB / CF Hamburg.
We can deliver by 5 June.
We can deliver within one month.
We can guarantee delivery within one week of receipt of your order.
We can ship as soon as we receive your order.
We can offer a discount of 5% on orders over £1,000.
We require payment by bank transfer.
We would like payment by letter of credit at sight / 30 days / 60 days.
We wish to be paid by bill of exchange.
Ending the letter
We hope you find our quotation satisfactory and look forward to receiving your order.
Thank you once again for your enquiry.
If you need any further information, please contact us.
150 East70th Street• New York – NY 10021 – USA
Mr. C. Ling
Fortune Garment Company (Head Office)
Dear Mr. Ling
Our ref: Order DL137
Following our recent telephone conversation, I would like to confirm our order (No. DL137) for the following:
2,000 Jackie Chen brand silk ties (catalogue number R192) in the following quantities:
500 design JC1
500 design JC2
400 design J.C4
300 design JC5
300 design JC7.
We would expect our normal 10% discount off list price for this bulk order.
If you do not have the items requested in stock, please advise us immediately.
The goods should be sent air freight as they are urgently required for our winter sale.
Payment will be made on receipt of goods. We would appreciate delivery by the end of November and look forward to your acknowledgement.
Peter Gilmartin Chief Buyer
Acknowledge the letter.
Thank them for their order.
Agree to the normal 10% discount.
Advise that design JC1 is out of stock because of great demand ad will not be in stock until after Christmas.
Offer a close substitute, JC9, which is a similar design although a different colour, with 5% additional discount on that line.
Remind them that payment must be made-in US dollars.
End on an optimistic note.
Before you read
Think of people with similar jobs, background, etc. to you in another country that you know. When they go to a supermarket, do you think they buy the same products as you or are their tastes and lifestyles very different?
Read this article from the Financial Times and answer the questions.
The global brand is real enough, but what of the global consumer?
Nicholas Trivisonno, the chairman and chief executive of AC Nielsen, the US-based international market research company, believes such a character is fictional. "There is no global consumer. Each country and the consumer in each country has different attitudes and different behaviors, tastes, spending patterns," he says.
Nielsen should be in a position to know. It has a presence in more than 90 countries across three continents, and works for more than 9.000 clients. Its revenue last year was $1.4 billion, out of a $12 billion global market research industry.
Mr Trivisonno specifically includes teenagers in what he says, though they are often seen by marketing executives as people who have more and more in common worldwide – and to whom some of the leading global brands most appeal.
"We are seeing changes in consumer behavior, but not a convergence of consumer behavior," he says. He believes the reason for this is that even though a global brand may get similar reactions in very different markets, the consumer will view it against different sets of rivals in the market.
"Take a global brand of soft drink. Acceptance of that product may be the same, but the competitive set in any particular country will be different – it could be mineral water, coffee or other types of soft drinks. You need to look behind not only reaction to the global brand but to competitors' brands."
Defining the competitive market is critical to making sensible use f market research information, and the boundaries are moving more often.
Mr Trivisonno gives the example of a breakfast cereal manufacturer. At one time competition for a cereal would have been from the brands that it stood alongside on supermarket shelves: these days it may be with other breakfast foods, such as yoghurts. "Now it's all about share of stomach, share of thirst,” he says.
1. Match the words to the nouns.
2. Nielsen has revenues of $1.4 billion. This means that it has
a) profits of $1.4 billion
b) sales of $1.4 billion
3. Does Mr Trivisonno think that teenagers worldwide are becoming more and more similar?
4. If a brand appeals to someone, do they like it?
5. If there is convergence in the behaviour of different groups, they are becoming
a) more similar
b) less similar
6. A rival is a comp …………….. .
7. A competitive set of products is a group of comp…………..products.
8. Correct these statements.
a) The main competition to a soft drink is other soft drinks
b) You only need to look at reaction to the global brand to see what people think of it.
c) Defining the competitive market for a product is not important
d) The divisions between markets are staying more or less the same
e) The main competition for breakfast cereals is other breakfast cereals
Over to you 1
What do people have for breakfast in your country? Is there a difference between what younger and older people have? Which of these things are sold under brand names? Are the brands local, national or global? If they are local, are they locally owned, or part of a multinational group?
Over to you 2
When people eat out in restaurants in your country, do they prefer restaurants with food from your country, or do they prefer food from other countries? Is there a difference between what younger and older people like? Do you think that global tastes In food are developing?
Exercise 9. One size fits all
Before you read
What are these companies famous for, and in which country did each of them start? Do they still have that national connection in your mind? Is It important that they should have this connection when you consider the business that they're each in?
Read this article from the Financial Times and answer the questions.
Most of us would look at Brazil, Belgium and Bangladesh and see three different cultures. Al Zeien, chief executive of Gillette, the US razor maker, simply sees a lot of people in need of a shave. He believes Gillette is a "global" company in the way few corporations are."A multinational has operations in different countries," he says. "A global company views the world as a single country. We know Argentina and France are different, but we treat them the same. We sell them the same products, we use the same production methods, we have the same corporate policies. We even use the same advertising, in a different language, of course."
The company's one-size-fits-all strategy has been effective.
The group makes items almost everyone in the world buys at one time or another, including shavers, batteries and pens. It aims to dominate the markets it operates in: its share of the worldwide shavers market, for example, is 70 per cent, which the company hopes to increase by the launch next week of a new razor for men.
To make sure managers worldwide are on the same wave-length, Mr Zeien insists they move from country to country and division to division. Being moved around places them in the role of "idea ambassadors" who can transfer concepts. "I believe in diagonal promotions," he says. "You don't move up in a nice progression through one area or country."
Managers joining Gillette should expect to be geographically relocated three or four times in their first dozen years. During the last few years, Mr Zeien has concentrated on increasing the number of Americans in overseas posts, and the time foreign managers spend in the US.
There are problems with his approach, he admits. Being transferred from country to country can be hard on staff. People in dual-career marriages, he says, probably should not work for Gillette. The company's commitment to standardization, moreover, costs it customers in niche markets within countries.
Mr. Zeien long ago decided the drawbacks were worth suffering. "I tell my workers all the time that we'll only be in markets where we can be number one," he says. "Focus is what gives us bang for the buck."
1. Choose the correct alternative
a) What is 'one-size-fits-all' usually used to talk about?
ii) restaurant meals
b) If a company dominates a market, among competitors in the market it is:
i) the smallest
ii) of average size
iii) the biggest
c) The launch of a product is usually done when it
i) is new
ii) has been available for a few years
iii) is going out of fashion
d) If people are on the same wavelength, they
i) understand each other
ii) listen to the same radio stations
iii) don't understand each other
e) If you go through a series of diagonal promotions , you get promoted
i) directly up the hierarchy
ii) to a less important job
iii) to a more important job in another part of the organization.
2. Find words and expressions that mean:
a) to move: to r…………..
b) to be moved: to be …………n…………. d
c) a marriage where both partners have career: …………-c ……..marriage
d) believing in doing something in a particular way: …….m…………
e) when things are done the same way everywhere: ……..d……………..
f) a market for an unusual product, or with unusual customers ……h…...
3. What are the drawbacks Mr Zeien refers to?
4. If you have 'bang for the buck', every dollar you spend produces a lot of results. If you have 'focus', you concentrate on one thing. Why does Mr Zeien say that 'Focus gives us bang for the buck'?
Over to you 1
What are the advantages of having the biggest market share in a particular market? Why is Mr Zeien so keen on this?
Over to you 2
Is it reasonable to ask people to move to a new country every three or four years for their work? What are some of the disadvantages? Would you be prepared to do this?
Work in pairs. One of you is a human resources manager for a global company who believes in the benefits of moving people 'diagonally' from one job to another. The other is someone who believes that this causes problems. Discuss the issues involved.